Classical Architecture


The Ancient Greeks recognised three distinct orders – the Doric, Ionic and Corinthian – to which the Romans added the Tuscan and the Composite. Of the Greek orders the Doric is the most squat, with a round capital and no base. The column has 20 grooves or flutes and above the square abacus the entablature consists of a smooth lower section with alternating triglyphs and metopes above. The triglyphs consist of three vertical bands and the metopes are relief sculptures.

Slide 1: Parthenon, W facade

Parthenon West facade

Slide 2: Hephaesteion, Athens

Slide 3: Temple of Apollo, Corinth

Slide 4: Basilica, Paestum


Slide 5: Temple of Zeus, Olympia
Olympia Temple of Zeus Restoration

Imagined reconstruction of the Temple of Zeus, now destroyed.

Slide 6: Doric order of the Parthenon
Doric Parthenon

Slide 7: Origins of Doric, diagram (image not found)

Slide 8: Temple of Aphaia, Aegina

Slide 9: Aegina, detail of corner

Slide 10: Libreria, Venice, detail of corner

Slide 11: Temple of Athena, Delphi, capital

Slide 12: Temple of Aphaia, Aegina, capital

Slide 13: Temple of Zeus, Olympia, capital

Slide 14: Temple of Athena, Tegea, capital


Slide 15: Ionic order, diagram

Slide 16: Temple of Athena, Priene

Slide 17: Temple on the Illissos, Athens(image not found)

Slide 18: Erectheion, Athens, north porch

Slide 19: Erectheion, Athens, capital

Slide 20: Erectheion, column base

Slide 21: Temple of Artemis, Ephesos, capital

Slide 22: Temple of Artemis, Ephesos

Slide 23: Temple of Artemis, Sardis, capital

A portion of the classical temple to Artemis at the site of Sardis in western Turkey. This city, once the capital city of the Lydian Empire became the Persian capital of Asia Minor after the defeat of the Lydians by the Persians in 546 BC. The cliffs in the background show where the ancient citadel was once located.

Slide 24: Asklepeion, Pergamon, capital

Slide 25: Temple of Athena Nike, Athens

Slide 26: Temple of Athena Nike, Athens

Slide 27: Temple of Athena Nike, Athens, frieze

Slide 28: Temple of Athena Nike, Athens, capital

Slide 29: Temple of Artemis, Ephesos, plan

Slide 30: Temple of Zeus, Olympia, plan

Slide 31: Temple of Artemis, Magnesia

Slide 32: Temple of Artemis, Magnesia, plan

Slide 33: Temple of Apollo, Bassae

Slide 34: Temple of Apollo, Bassae, interior

The single central column is pre – Corinthian in style


Slide 35: Temple of Apollo, Bassae, Corinthian cap.

It is the first nearly complete temple still surving, with for the the first time, all three architectural styles: Doric, Ionian and Corinthian. The temple was erected on a raised area, 1,131m, called the ‘Bassai ‘, meaning little vale in the rocks.

It is a Doric peripteral temple made from local limestone, and consists of a prodome and a cella. It is orientated north to south. In the cella there was a column with a corinthian capital, which is the oldest known example of its kind.

The temple was decorated with a marble sculpted frieze depicting the battles between the Amazons and the Centaurs. The frieze ‘s marbles have been looted by the British and can now be found in the British Museum.

The temple, work of Ictinos architect of the Parthenon, is dated at ca. 420 B.C. It was built over an older temple, by the inhabitants of Figalos in honour of Epicurean Apollo, gratitude for saving them from a plague. The name Epicuros was given to Monument of Lysicrates, Athens

Slide 38: Tholus, Epidauros, capital

Slide 39: Temple of Athena, Tegea, capital

Slide 40: Temple of Athena, Tegea, section(image not found)

Slide 41: Maison Carée, Nimes

Slide 42: Arch of Titus, Rome, Composite capital

Use of the Orders

Slide 43: Temple at Assos, entablature

Slide 44: Temple at Assos, facade

Slide 45: Bouleterion, Miletos, capital(image not found)

Slide 46: Arch of Augustus, Rome, capital

Slide 47: Temple of Aphaia, Aegina, interior

Slide 48: Parthenon, section

Slide 49: Propylaea, Athens, plan

Slide 50: Propylaea, Athens, facade

Slide 51: Propylaea, Athens, interior(image not found)

Slide 52: Propylaea, Athens, column bases(image not found)

Slide 53: Parthenon, E facade

Slide 54: Parthenon, stylobate

Slide 55: Parthenon, diagram of refinements(image not found)

Slide 56: Erectheion, Athens, general view

Slide 57: Erectheion, west facade,+Erechtheion


Slide 58: Erectheion, caryatid porch(image not found)

Slide 59: Colosseum exterior

Slide 60: Pont du Gard

Slide 61: The Orders

Slide 62: Tempietto, S.Pietro in Montorio, Rome

The Tempietto (1502) was designed by Donato Bramante, one of the greatest architects of the Italian Renaissance. The building, with a domed rotunda and surrounded by columns, was commissioned by Ferdinand and Isabella of Spain to commemorate St. Peter’s crucifixion. It is located in Rome, in a convent called San Pietro in Montorio.

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