1250-1400: Civic Patronage in Italy

Commune and signoria; good and bad government

Slide 1: San Gimignano
San_Gimignano

Slide 2: Ambrogio Lorenzetti? (recently attributed to Simone Martini), City by the Sea (view of Talamone), c.131l?/1320s?, Siena, Pinacoteca

Feedback received: In the recent exhibition of Sienese Renaissance art, this panel was attributed to Sassetta, and the hypothesis was made that it formed part of the Arte della Lana altarpiece of 1423-26. More recent research indicates it represents the port of Porto Ercole, and was painted by Francesco di Bartolommeo in 1455. (Francesco di Bartolommeo would be the so-called Osservanza Master.)

Ambrogio_Lorenzetti_City_by_the_Sea_1311-20

Slide 3: Agostino de Giovanni and Agnolo di Ventura, tomb of Bishop Guido Tarlati, c.1330, Arezzo, cathedral
Agostino_de_Giovanni_tomb_of_Bishop_Tarlati_detail_c1330

Slide 4: Ambrogio Lorenzetti, Allegories of Good and Bad Government, Good Government town 1338/9, Siena, Palazzo Pubblico, Sala de’ Nove
Ambrogio_Lorenzetti_Good_Government_town_1338-9

Slide 5: Ambrogio Lorenzetti, Allegories of Good and Bad Government, Good Government virtues 1338/9, Siena, Palazzo Pubblico, Sala de’ Nove
Ambrogio_Lorenzetti_Good_Government_virtues_1338-9

Slide 6: Ambrogio Lorenzetti, Allegories of Good and Bad Government, Good Government country 1338/9, Siena, Palazzo Pubblico, Sala de’ Nove
Ambrogio_Lorenzetti_Good_Government_country_1338-9

Slide 7: Ambrogio Lorenzetti, Allegories of Good and Bad Government, Bad Government 1338/9, Siena, Palazzo Pubblico, Sala de’ Nove
Ambrogio_Lorenzetti_Bad_Government_vices_1338-9

Slide 8: Simone Martini, Maesta, 1315, Siena, Palazzo Pubblico, Sala del Mappamondo
Simone_Martini_Maesta_1315

Slide 9: Simone Martini? and Lippo Memmi?, ‘New Fresco’ (view of Arcidosso) and Guidoriccio da Fogliano (c. 1352?) above former Mappamondo by Ambrogio Lorenzetti, 1345

Feedback received: Guido Riccio and the so-called new fresco. The castle with two figures might represent Arcidosso, by Simone Martini, painted in 1331. For Guido Riccio, there are now over sixty reasons to doubt that Simone painted this fresco, with many of the reasons indicating a date later than the 14th century. Fifty six of these reasons are listed in the book GUIDO RICCIO: A Guide to the Controversy: For Tourists, Scholars, Students, Art Librarians (Siena: Edizioni Notizie d’Arte, 2000, written by Gordon Moran and Michael Mallory).

Civic architecture

Slide 10: Piacenza, Palazzo Comunale, begun 1280
Piacenza_Palazzo_Comunale_1280

Slide 11: Padua, Palazzo della Ragione, early thirteenth century and 1306
Padua_Palazzo_della_Ragione

Slide 12: Perugia, Fontana Maggiore, by Nicola Pisano, completed 1278
Perugia_Fontana_Maggiore

Slide 13: Palazzo dei Priori, begun 1292
Perugia_Palazzo_dei_Prior_1292

Siena and Florence, Campo (Town Hall) and Palazzo Pubblico

Slide 14: Siena, Campo
Siena_Campo

Slide 15: Siena, Cathedral 1220-60
Siena_Duomo_and_City_Hall_aerial_view

Slide 16: Siena, Cathedral new construction begun 1316
Siena_Duomo_new_nave

Slide 17: Siena, Cathedral west facade begun 1284
Siena_Duomo_facade

Slide 18: Siena, Cathedral east facade
Siena_Duomo_east_facade

Slide 19: Siena, Cathedral facade design(image not found)

Slide 20: Siena, Cathedral nave
Siena_Duomo_nave

Compare west and east façade schemes with rayonnant west facades such as Strasbourg, begun 1277

Slide 21: Strasbourg cathedral begun 1277
Strasbourg_cathedral_facade

Slide 22: Duccio, Maesta, 1308-11, formerly cathedral, now Museo dell’ Opera del Duomo
Duccio_Maesta_1308-11

Slide 23: Siena, San Francesco, begun 1326
Siena_San_Francesco_1326

Slide 24: Florence, Baptistry, begun 1046
Florence_Baptistry_1046

Slide 25: Florence, Bargello, begun c. 1255
Florence_Bargello_1255

Slide 26: Florence, Palazzo Vecchio, founded 1299
Florence_della_Signoria

Slide 27: Florence, Santa Maria Novella (Dominican), begun by 1269
Florence_S_Maria_Novella_exterior

Slide 28: Florence, S. Croce (Franciscan), designed c. 1292
Florence_Santa_Croce_facade_1292

Slide 29: Florence, Orsanmichele, founded 1337, with tabernacle by Andrea Orcagna, 1359
Florence_Orsanmichele_1337

Slide 30: Florence, Cathedral of S. Maria del Fiore, begun 1294 by Arnolfo di Cambio

Enlarged scheme adopted by 1368 (Francesco Talenti, Andrea Orcagna and others; compare representation by Andrea di Firenze in Spanish Chapel at S. Maria Novella, c. 1365), bell tower begun 1334 (drawing with original scheme by Giotto?; compare northern spires like Freiburg, begun c. 1280)

Slide 31: Freiburg begun c.1280
Freiburg_cathedral_1280

Slide 32: Giotto bell tower begun 1334
Giotto_bell_tower_1334

Northern Italy: communes and courts

Slide 33: Venice, Palazzo Ducale, begun 1340
Venice_Palazzo_Ducale

Slide 34: Mantua, Castello di S. Giorgio, begun c. 1395 by Bartolino da Novara
Mantua_Castello_di_S_Giorgio_1395

Slide 35: Verona, monument to Cansignorio della Scala, by Bonino da Campione, c. 1375
Verona_monument_Cansignorio_della_Scala_1375

Bonino da Campione (active 1350-1390), 1374, marble

Slide 36: Milan, monument to Bernabo Visconti, by Bonino da Campione, c. 1363
Milan_Monument_Visconti_1363-85_Campione

formerly on high altar of S. Giovanni in Conca, now Castello Sforzesco

Slide 37: Milan, cathedral, begun 1386
Milan_Duomo_facade

Milan debate between natives and foreign architects; compare Cologne, begun 1248

Slide 38: Cologne cathedral begun 1248
Cologne_cathedral_1248

 

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