Britain Timeline 1250-1400

Britain Timeline 1250-1400

1216 – Henry III becomes king of England at age nine (to 1272) 1227 – Henry III begins personal rule in England 1256 – Prince Llewellyn sweeps English from Wales 1264 – Simon de Montfort and other English barons defeat Henry III at battle of Lewes 1265 – De Montfort’s Parliament: burgesses from major towns summoned to Parliament for the first time; Henry III’s son Edward defeats and kills Simon de Montfort at battle of Evesham 1269 – Rebuilding of Westminster Abbey begun by Henry III. 1272 – Edward I, King of England (to 1307) 1283 – Edward I defeats and kills Llewellyn, Prince of Wales, and executes Llewellyn’s brother David; conquest of Wales complete 1290 – Edward I expells all Jews from England 1291 – Scots acknowledge Edward I of England as suzerain; he arbitrates in succession dispute 1295 – Model Parliament of Edward I: knights and burgesses from English shires and towns summoned. First representative parliament 1296 – Edward I of England deposes John Balliol from Scottish throne 1297 – Battle of Cambuskenneth: Scottish patriot William Wallace defeats English army 1298 – Edward I defeats Wallace at battle of Falkirk and reconquers Scotland 1301 – Edward I of England invests his baby son Edward as Prince of Wales 1305 – The English capture and execute William Wallace 1306 – New Scottish rebellion against English rule led by Robert Bruce. Robert I, the Bruce crowned King of Scotland (to 1329) at Scone 1307 – Edward I dies on march north to crush Robert Bruce. Edward II, King of England (to 1327) 1310 – English barons appoint 21 peers, the Lords Ordainers, to manage Edward II’s household 1312 – Order of Knights Templar abolished 1314 – Battle of Bannockburn: Robert Bruce defeats Edward II and makes Scotland independent 1326 – Queen Isabella and Roger Mortimer sail from France with an army to rebel against Edward II of England 1327 – Parliament declares Edward II deposed, and his son accedes to the throne as Edward III. Edward II is hideously murdered, nine months later 1328 – Charles IV dies, ending the Capetian dynasty. Philip of Valois succeeds him as Philip VI. 1329 – Edward III of England does simple homage for Aquitaine (Guienne), but refuses to do liege homage. 1333 – Edward III invades Scotland on Balliol’s behalf and defeats the Scots at battle of Halidon Hill 1336 – Edward places an embargo on English exports of wool to Flanders. 1337 – Philip declares Edward’s fiefs forfeit and begins harassing the frontiers of Aquitaine; Edward III, provoked by these attacks on his territories in France, declares himself king of France; “The Hundred Years’ War ” begins (ends 1453) 1338 – Treaty of Koblenz: alliance between England and the Holy Roman Empire; Edward III formally claims the French crown. 1340 – Naval victory at Sluys gives England the command of the English Channel; English Parliament passes four statues providing that taxation shall be imposed only by Parliament 1346 – Edward III of England invades France with a large army and defeats an even bigger army under Philip VI at the Battle of Cr�cy 1347 – The English capture Calais 1348 – Edward III establishes the Order of the Garter; Black Death (bubonic plague) reaches England 1351 – The English remove the Pope’s power to give English benefices to foreigners 1353 – Statue of Praemunire: English Parliament forbids appeals to Pope 1356 – Edward the Black Prince, son of Edward III, defeats the French at the battle of Poitiers, capturing King John II 1358 – The Jacquerie 1360 – Peace of Bretigny ends the first stage of the Hundred Years’ War. Edward III gives up claim to French throne 1369 – Second stage of war between England and France begins 1370 – French troops commanded by Bertrand du Guesclin; Edward, the Black Prince, sacks Limoges 1372 – French troops recapture Poitou and Brittany; Naval battle of La Rochelle: French regain control of English Channel 1373 – John of Gaunt, Duke of Lancaster, son of Edward III, leads new English invasion of France 1374 – John of Gaunt returns to England and takes charge of the government; Edward III in his dotage, the Black Prince is ill 1375 – Truce of Bruges ends hostilities between England and France 1376 – The Good Parliament in England, called by Edward the Black Prince, introduces many reforms of government; Death of Edward the Black Prince, aged 45; The Civil Dominion of John Wyclif, an Oxford don, calling for Church reforms 1377 – Richard II, son of the Black Prince, King of England (to 1399) 1381 – Peasants’ Revolt in England; John Wyclif, an Oxford theologian, publishes his “Confession”, denying that the “substance” of bread and wine are miraculously changed during the Eucharist. 1382 – John Wyclif is expelled from Oxford because of his opposition to certain Church doctrines 1386 – John of Gaunt leads an expedition to Castile, which he claims in his wife’s name; fails 1388 1387 – Geoffrey Chaucer begins work on The Canterbury Tales 1389 – Richard II, aged 22, assumes power 1394 – Richard II leads expedition to subdue Ireland; returns to England 1395 1396 – Richard II marries the seven-year old Princess Isabella of France 1399 – Death of John of Gaunt; Gaunt’s eldest son, Henry of Bolingbroke, lands in Yorkshire with 40 followers, and soon has 60,000 supporters: Richard II is deposed; Bolingbroke becomes Henry IV, King of England (to 1413) 1400 – Richard II murdered at Pontefract Castle; Owen Glendower proclaims himself Prince of Wales and begins rebellion 1401 – Persecution of Lollards for revolting against clergy. 1402 – Henry IV enters Wales in pursuit of Glendower 1403 – Battle of Shrewsbury; rebellion by the Percy family: Henry IV defeats and kills Harry “Hotspur” Percy 1406 – Henry, Prince of Wales, defeats Welsh 1413 – Henry V, King of England (to 1422) 1415 – Henry V invades France, and defeats the French at Agincourt 1416 – Death of Owen Glendower 1420 – Treaty of Troyes 1422 – Deaths of Henry V of England and Charles VI of France; Henry VI, King of England (to 1461)

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